Most Important Competitive Exams Top 25 Topics 2019 PDF Download


Most Important Competitive Exams Top 25 Best Topics of 2019

Top 25 Topics 2019 PDF Download


Are you preparing for competitive examinations or interviews then this Top 25 GK Topics of 2019 is very important to learn. For every competitive examinations in the country like; SSC, UPSC, Indian Railways, FCI, Civil Services, IBPS, Bank Clerical, RRB, NDA, CDS, Group C, Arm forces, Police and State Level Examinations asked most recent popular topics of the year in the examination or in the Interviews. So you need to read and learn all topics those are in news and make impact on the society, country and world.

In this Top 25 Topics PDF file we have covered the topics those are very important in 2019 and should be read by any exams aspirants for making his/her preparation as much as strong. So read out all these 25 Topics of 2019 and make your study to compete any competitive exams in the country.

Read and Learn Top 25 Topics of 2019. In this post we have given Most Important Competitive Exams Top 25 Best Topics of 2019. Its includes Political Topics, Current Affairs Topics, Current Traditional Topics, Science Topics, Technology and Computer Science Topics, Cryptocurrency Topics, World Hot Topics 2019 and much more.

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Topics on this PDF are Very Important For SSC, Important For SSC CGL, Important For SSC 10+2, Important For FCI, Important For IBPS PO, Important For Clerical Exams, Important For Railways Exams and also Important For NDA CDS. If you are preparing for civil services exams then these 25 Hot Topics of 2019 will be boost your knowledge and will be very helpful for you while preparing for 2019 and 2020 Competitive Exams, Civil Services Exams.

2019 Top 25 Hot Topics Important For Competitive Exams 2019

1. Narendra Modi ‘Prime Minister of India’.
2. General Election India 2019.
3. General Election India 2019 Result.
4. Aayusman Bharat Health Scheme.
5. NDA 2014 to 2019 Development Works.
6
. Statue of Unity.
7. Mamta Banerjee.
8. Cricket World Cup 2019.
9. Indian Premier League 2019.
10. Election Commission India.
11. West Bengal in General Election 2019.

12. Parliament of India.
13. Plastic Pollution.
14. Congress President Rahul Gandhi.
15. Wayanad Kerala.
16. Varanasi.
17. kedarnath, Uttarakhand.
18. Manohar Parrikar.
19. Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2019.
20. Air Strike By India.
21. Cyclone Fani.

22. Reserve Bank of India.
23. World’s first malaria vaccine – RTS,S.
24. Digitalization in India.
25. Central Board of Secondary Education.


Top 25 Topics With Description:

Read all these 25 Topics of 2019 from here or download the PDF file from below.


‘Narendra Modi’ The Prime Minister of INDIA

Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi full name is Narendra Damodardas Modi. He born in 17 September 1950 at Vadnagar, Gujarat. His family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community. His father name is Damodardas Mulchand Modi and mother name is Hiraben Modi. It is very interesting fact that Narendra Modi helped his father to sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station in Gujarat. At the age of just 8, Narendra Modi began attending Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) training sessions. During this period he met Lakshmanrao Inamdar and he inducted Narendra Modi as a junior cadet in the RSS. Lakshmanrao Inamdar also became the political mentor of Narendra Modi.

During state of emergency in India 1977, Narendra Modi wrote a book in Gujarati (Sangharsh Ma Gujarat) which means ‘In The Struggles of Gujarat’. in 1978 Narendra Modi became an RSS regional organizer in Gujarat. In November, 1955 he was elected as Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) national secretary and he was transferred to New Delhi.
On 7 October 2001, Narendra Modi was sworn in as Chief Minister of Gujarat.

In his second term he again became Chief Minister of Gujarat (22 December 2002 to 22 December 2007). His became Chief Minister of Gujarat again in 2007 election and his term was 23 December 2007 to 20 December 2012. In 2012 election, Narendra Modi continued his victory and again became the Chief Minister of Gujarat after 2012 election. His term was 20 December 2012 to 22 May 2014. After he became the Prime Minister of India in 2014, Anandiben Patel became the Chief Minister of Gujarat.
Narendra Modi was named as BJP’s candidate for prime minister in the 2014 Lok Sabha election. As a national leader of BJP the party won 31% of vote in India and won 282 sets in General Election 2014. Narendra Modi had candidate from 2 Lok Sabha constituencies (Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh and Vadodara in Gujarat). Narendra Modi won in both constituencies in this election.

On 26 May 2014 he was sworn in as the Prime Minister (16th PM) of India. During his tenure major national level decision were made. On of them is Demonetized Rupee 500 and Rupee 1000 Banknotes in India. India GDP (Gross domestic product) rate was 7.23% in his first 4 years of tenure. In his tenure he liberalized India’s foreign direct investment policies which allowed foreign investment in major industries like defense and the railways industry in India. On 2 October 2014, Narendra Modi government launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India) campaign in Pan India which got huge support in the country.

In the general Election 2019, Narendra Modi again became the Prime Minister (17th) of India. As his strong participation and strong leadership for the development of the country, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won 303 sets in this 2019 General Election which was greater then 2014 election.
Narendra Modi sworn in as Prime minister of India on 30 May 2019.


General Election India 2019

In India the ‘General Election India 2019’ was held between 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. In this election Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won 303 sets which was a major victory for Bharatiya Janata Party since its formation. BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 353 seats in General Election 2019. Indian National Congress party won 52 seats in this election while its led United Progressive Alliance won 91 sets. Other parties and their alliances won 98 seats in this election of 2019.

BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won 100% sets in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat. On 23 May, 2019 the result of General Election India 2019 was declared by Election commission officials after counting the votes.

In this election the 900 million people were eligible to vote and in this 468 million voters were males and 432 million voters were females. Here is interesting facts also came that 15 million (1.5 crore) voters were aged between 18-19 years were eligible to vote for the first time.

After the election result Narendra Modi from the Bharatiya Janata Party became again the Prime Minister (17th) of India and take oath on 30 May 2019 at President House, New Delhi.


General Election India 2019 Result

General Election India 2019 Result was declared on 23 May, 2019 by Election Commission India. After the result came Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won this election and also Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 sets alone while Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won total 353 Sets in this election.

As Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won 2014 General Election, it was the second time in India’s independent history that voters re-elected the same party to power with a bigger majority to the Lok Sabha. In this election, 1.04 percent of the voters in India chose to vote for None Of The Above (NOTA).

Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won 2019 General Election so we have given below all party winning sets.

  • Bharatiya Janata Party – 303 Sets.
  • Shiv Sena- 18 Sets.
  • Janata Dal (United) – 16 Sets.
  • Lok Jan Shakti Party – 6 Sets.
  • Apna Dal (Sonelal) – 2 Sets.
  • Shiromani Akali Dal – 2 Sets.
  • All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam – 1 Sets.
  • All Jharkhand Students Union Party -1 Sets.
  • Mizo National Front – 1 Sets.
  • National People’s Party – 1 Sets.
  • Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party – 1 Sets.
  • Rashtriya Loktantrik Party – 1 Sets.

Ayushman Bharat Yojana Scheme

Ayushman Bharat Yojana is a National Health Protection Scheme which is centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2018. In Uttarakhand, this health scheme was officilly launchd on 25 December 2018. Ayushman Bharat Yojana had been established by subsuming several schemes running by previous government like; Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana, Senior citizen health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS), Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS), Employee’s State Insurance Scheme (ESIS).

For the foundation of one India’s health system Ayushman Bharat Yojana Scheme was launched and achieved many success since launched. Under this health scheme $170 million was allocated for the 150,000 health and wellness centers.

There are many health services provides by Health Wellness Centers under this scheme:

  • Pregnancy care and maternal health services.
  • Neonatal and infant health services.
  • Child health.
  • Chronic communicable diseases.
  • Non-communicable diseases.
  • Management of mental illness.
  • Dental care.
  • Geriatric care emergency medicine.

As per government 2018 reports, more then 1,00,000 people in the country have taken benefit of the scheme till October 2018. There are both Government and Private hospitals provide health facility to people under Ayushman Bharat Yojana Scheme.


NDA (National Democratic Alliance) 2014 to 2019 Major Development Works and Schemes

Here we have listed Top 10 Programmes by Modi Government after 2014 and also given the description of these schemes launched by NDA Government:

1. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana – On 1 May 2016, Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) was launched by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. This Scheme was launched to distribute 50 Million (5 Crore) LPG connection to the BPL families women’s. Up to 22 Million connection were distributed in the first phase of this scheme and over 21,000 awareness camps were launched by oil marketing companies in India among the people.

2. Atal Pension Yojana – Atal Pension Yojana is previously known as Swavalamban Yojana. Swavalamban Yojana was applicable to all citizens in the unorganized sector who joined the National Pension Scheme (NPS). This scheme has been replaced with Atal Pension Yojana on 9 May, 2015 and all subscribing workers below the age of 40 are eligible for pension of up to rupees 5,000 per month.

3. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana – Under this central government programme, disbursements would be made through a digital voucher directly into the student’s bank account as part of the government’s skill development initiative. This scheme was launched on 25 September 2014 by Union Ministers Nitin Gadkari and Venkaiah Naidu (current Vice President of India since 11 August 2017). Main focus of this programme is to transform rural poor youth into an economically independent and globally relevant workforce.

4. Digital India – Digital India is the high performing campaign of central government to ensure the Government’s services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity. Digital India was launched on 1 July 2015 by Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Main objective of this programme is connecting rural areas with high-speed Internet networks and improving digital literacy. This programme includes several services by government like; National E-Governance Plan, E-Hospital Application, UMANG, MyGov.in, e-Sampark, Digital Attendance and also helpful for Black money eradication.

5. Standup India – As part of the government’s efforts to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST communities, Standup India was launched by Central Government of India on 5th April, 2016. Under this scheme eligible people may take loans of 10 lack to 1 Crore for setting up new enterprise outside of the farm sector.

6. Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana – Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana is new version of Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY). This scheme was launched by Union Government in 2016 and manage by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, India. According to PM Modi this scheme is to scaled up to cover 650 districts of the country which is conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women of 19 years of age or above for the first live birth.

7. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation – Also known as AMRUT. This scheme was launched by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in June 2015. This scheme main focus to establish infrastructure that could ensure adequate robust sewage networks and water supply for urban transformation by implementing urban revival projects. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is based on the public private partnership (PPP) model.

8. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana – As insurance of life is very important steps for each person in the country the Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana was launched on May, 2016. During the 2016-2017 upto 10 crore people had enrolled for this scheme. This scheme is available to the people age between 18 and 70 years. This scheme is plan of Rupees 12/annual premium and in case of accidental death or full disability, the payment to the nominee will be rupees 2 lakh.

9. Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana – This scheme was previously known as Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY). This is a social welfare flagship programme by union government to help poor people in rural area of India by providing them house. In this scheme any eligible people get a financial assistance from government amounting to rupees 1.2 lakh for constructing their houses in rural areas and an amount of rupees 12,000 for the constructing toilets at there resident.

10. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana – Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana was launched on August 2014. On 15 August 2014 Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi launched this campaign. This scheme is applicable to the age of 20 to 65 years people in the country. Under this scheme over 18,096,130 bank accounts were opened in the first week of staring this scheme. As of June, 2018 reports there have been 318 million bank account has been opened and over 792 Billion rupees has been deposited by the people.


Statue of Unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue which is Dedicated to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. First Home minister of independent India Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was born in 31 October 1875. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India and was senior leader of the Indian National Congress.
Statue of Unity is located in the state of Gujarat, India. This is World Tallest Statue (height of 182 metres).

Statue of Unity project was announced in 2010 while the construction of statue started in October 2013. Statue of Unity is build by construction company Larsen & Toubro (L&T). Total cost of this project was estimated to be about Rs 2,989 crore according to L&T. On 31 October 2013 (138th anniversary of Patel’s birth) Chief Minister of Gujarat ‘Narendra Modi’ who is currently Prime Minister of India since 2014 laid the foundation of Statue of Unity and inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018 (43rd anniversary of Patel’s birth).

Statue of Unity is located approximately 3.5 Km downstream from the Sardar Sarovar Dam. It is founded on Sadhu Hill on the bed of Narmada River. Cement Concrete, Reinforced Steel, Structured Steel, Bronze and Bronze Cladding was used in the construction of the Statue of Unity. Statue of Unity is designed by Indian Sculptor ‘Ram V. Sutar’.
Note: Statue of Unity structure was to be designed for 180 km per hour wind speed.


Mamta Banerjee

Indian politician Mamta Banerjee is Chief Minister of West Bengal since 20 May 2011. In Fifteenth Assembly election in West Bengal she became first time the Chief Minister of West Bengal and again became the Chief Minister of West Bengal in 26 May 2016 to present.

Mamta Banerjee born on 5 January 1955 at Kolkata, West Bengal. She did her Bachelor’s in History from the Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata and Doctorate of Literature (D.Litt.) degree by the Calcutta University.

Mamata Banerjee has been served twice as the Minister of Railways, India and also Minister of Coal, and Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Youth Affairs, Sports, Women and Child Development in the cabinet of the Indian government. In 1997, Mamata Banerjee left the Congress Party in West Bengal and formed the All India Trinamool Congress. She joined the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999 and was allocated the Railways Ministry.

Mamata Banerjee also popular for his maintained a publicly austere lifestyle, dressing in simple traditional Bengali clothes and avoiding luxuries life. In the General Election 2014 her party All India Trinamool Congress won 33 sets and in General Election 2019 party won 22 sets.


Cricket World Cup 2019

2019 Cricket World Cup is the 12th edition of the Cricket World Cup was scheduled to played in Wales and England. It is the 5th time when Cricket World Cup was held in Wales and England. In Cricket World Cup 2019 there are upto 10 teams joined this event from worldwide.

Total 48 matches (including Semi-final and Final match) was set to play by the teams. Virat Kohli was the captain of Indian Team for Cricket World Cup 2019.
Cricket World Cup 2019 was scheduled for 30 May 2019 to 14 July 2019. Final match held on 14 July 2019 at Lord’s Cricket Ground, London and England won the World Cup Title 2019 against New Zealand.

Here is the team played in this ICC World Cup 2019:
India, England, South Africa, New Zealand, Pakistan, West Indies, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Australia and Sri Lanka.


Indian Premier League 2019

Indian Premier League 2019 was held in India from 23 March 2019 to 12 May 2019. This tournament was 12th edition of IPL since its started.
Indian Premier League 2019 is know as IPL-12 and this is a professional Twenty20 cricket league which was formed by Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) in 2007.
As IPL-12 started from 23 March 2019 there were total 8 teams played this match. There name are as follows:
Mumbai Indians, Chennai Super Kings, Delhi Capitals, Sunrisers Hyderabad, Kolkata Knight Riders, Kolkata Knight Riders, Rajasthan Royals and Royal Challengers Bangalore.
In this season of Indian Premier League 2019, total 60 matches were played by all teams (including final match).

Indian Premier League 2019 won by Mumbai Indians. Team Chennai Super Kings was Runners-up in this match. Mumbai Indians won by 1 run in the final match against Chennai Super Kings.
David Warner from Sunrisers Hyderbad team made highest run in Indian Premier League 2019. He made 692 runs. Most wicket were took by Imran Tahir from Chennai Super Kings. He took 26 wickets in Indian Premier League 2019 .


Election Commission India

In India the Election Commission India is the major autonomous constitutional authority which is highest responsible for administering election processes in India. Election Commission India was formed in 25 January 1950. Headquarter of Election Commission India is Nirvachan Sadan, Ashoka Road in New Delhi.

Since 2 December 2018, Sunil Arora is the Chief Election Commissioner of India. Before him ‘Om Prakash Rawat’ was Chief Election Commissioner of India from 23 January 2018 to 1 December 2018. It should be noted that power of the Election Commission of India is derived from the Article 324 of the Constitution of India and mostly the Chief Election Commissioner of India is from Indian Administrative Service. As Election Commission of India is an constitutional authority, its function with both autonomy and freedom, along with the country’s higher judiciary, the Union Public Service Commission and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.


West Bengal in General Election of India 2019

West Bengal is an Indian State which is located in eastern region of India. Bay of Bengal is along with West Bengal. West Bengal population was 91,276,115 according to 2011 Census reports by Indian Government.

As General Election 2019 has been completed in India to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha, West Bengal also have major role in this election. In West Bengal there are 42 Lok Sabha sets and All India Trinamool Congress party won 22 sets in General Election of India 2019. All India Trinamool Congress is national level political party in India which was founded on 1st January 1998. Current chief minister (2019) of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee led the foundation of All India Trinamool Congress (AITC OR TMC). In General Election of India 2019, 41% of candidates were women from All India Trinamool Congress party.

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has dramatically increased its vote share to 40.25% in General Election of India 2019 in West Bengal while All India Trinamool Congress got 43.28% in this election. Indian National Congress got 5.61% vote share in this election and won 2 sets while Communist Party of India (Marxist) got 6.28% vote share but didn’t won any Lok Sabha sets.
Note: Assembly Elections is scheduled in 2021 in West Bengal.


Parliament of India

Indian Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It was founded in 26 January 1950. Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi which was opened on 18 January 1927 by Lord Irwin (Governor-General of India). There are two houses in the Parliament of India i.e, Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).

In Lok Sabha there are strength of 545 sets and 2 nominees from the Anglo-Indian Community by the President, and 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 nominees from the expertise of different fields of culture, art and history and science.

Sansad Bhavan which is Parliament House is located in New Delhi. Sansad Bhavan was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker. Construction of Sansad Bhavan took six years which was opened on 18 January 1927. It costs were 8.3 Million rupees or $120,000. The building is 170 metres (560 ft) in diameter which area of 2.4 hectares (6 acres).
Parliament house center and the focus of the building is Central Hall which consists of chambers of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, and Library Hall.

President of India who is the head of state, is a component of Parliament. In the constitution of India Article 60 and Article 111, President of India have responsibility is to ensure that laws passed by the Parliament are in accordance with the constitutional mandate.


Plastic Pollution

Plastic Objects like plastic bottles, bags, kitchen storage boxes etc makes Plastic Pollution around us. Plastic Pollution affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, and humans on earth when the proper solution not applied. As plastics are inexpensive and durable the production and consumption is very high by the all humans on earth. Plastic Pollution can be found in land, waterways and ocean of the worlds. Each year about 1.1 to 8.8 million metric tons plastic waste reach in the oceans by near coastal communities.

In a report 380 million tons of plastic is produced worldwide every year and upto 6.3 billion tons of plastic has been produced by worldwise all countries. 9% of plastic has been recycled from it. As researchers said that 2050 is the year when plastic may be more than fish in the oceans by weight.

There are 3 types of plastic debris which is; Micro plastics, Mega Plastics and Macro Plastics.
“Plastic and Climate” report which is published in 2019 said, plastic will contribute greenhouse gases in the equivalent of 850 million tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and By 2050 plastic could emit 56 billion tons of Greenhouse gas emissions which is as much as 14 percent of the earth’s remaining carbon budget.
This pollution has the potential to poison animals, which can then adversely affect human food supplies and it’s also blocks the animal’s digestive tract in the water. Plastics have potentially harmful effects that could prove to be carcinogenic or promote endocrine disruption in human body.

European Norm EN 13432, lists the standards that plastics must meet, in terms of compo-stability and biodegradability for region. As we know 5th June is observed as World Environment Day which have great awareness in the world about all pollution in the world. In India, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change had invited people to take care of their social responsibility and urged them to take up green good deeds in everyday life.


Rahul Gandhi

Indian politician Rahul Gandhi is served as President of the Indian National Congress (INC). He was born in 19 June 1970 at New Delhi. His mother name is Sonia Gandhi and father name is Rajiv Gandhi (he was 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989). Rahul Gandhi worked at the Monitor Group, a management consulting firm, in London after his graduation. Rahul Gandhi was one of the directors of Mumbai-based technology outsourcing firm Backops Services Private Ltd in 2002.

Rahul Gandhi held Chair of Indian Youth Congress from 25 September 2007 – 10 December 2017. He was General Secretary of Indian National Congress from 25 September 2007 – 19 January 2013. He also served as Vice President of the Indian National Congress from 19 January 2013 – 16 December 2017.

Rahul Gandhi won Member of Parliament set from Amethi (Uttar Pradesh) in 2004, 2009 and 2014 General Election, India. On 16 December 2017 he became the president of the Indian National Congress (INC).

A sarcasm against Narendra Modi (Current India Prime Minister) Rahul Gandhi coined the slogan “Chowkidar Chor Hai” in Indian general election, 2019. This slogan was aimed at Narendra Modi in relation to the alleged irregularities which was related to Rafale fighter jet deal.

In Indian General Election 2019, Rahul Gandhi contested from two constituencies, Amethi (Uttar Pradesh) and Wayanad (Kerala). He lost his existing seat of Amethi to BJP’s Smriti Irani by a margin of 55,120 votes and won from Wayanad (Kerala) got 7,06,367 votes.


Wayanad, Kerala

In Kerala state, Wayanad is a district in the north east of Kerala. Wayanad is set high on the Western Ghats with altitudes ranging from 700 to 2100. Wayanad district was formed on 1 November 1980. In Wayanad district about 885.92 sq.km of area is under forest. It is bordered by Karnataka to north and north-east, Tamil Nadu to south-east, Malappuram to south, Kozhikode to south-west and Kannur to north-west.

There are many Evidence of New Stone Age civilization can be seen in the hills of Wayanad district. In ancient times, this land was ruled by the Rajas of the Veda tribe.
Wayanad was part of Kannur district before Kerala became Indian State in November 1956.

Kalpetta, Sultan Bathery, Mananthavady, Meenangadi, Ambalavayal and Pulpally are the major cities in Wayanad. Chembra Peak is the highest peak in the Wayanad district which is height of 2,100m. ‘Banasura Sagar Dam’ and ‘Karapuzha Dam’ are two biggest Dams in Wayanad district.
Agriculture is the main part of works in Wayanad and mostly people (half of its population) use there lands for agricultural purposes.

According to the 2011 census Wayanad district had a population of 816,558. Wayanad have the largest tribal population in Kerala. There are 8 scheduled tribes like; Kattuniakkan, Paniyan, Kurichyan, Adiyan, Mullukkurman, Vettakkuruman, Wayanad Kadar and Thachaanadan Mooppan.


Varanasi City, Uttar Pradesh

Varanasi city is a city on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh which is 320 kilometers (200 mi) south-east of Lucknow. Varanasi is one of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) in Hinduism and Jainism of India. Varanasi is connected with Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra, and Delhi via National Highway 2 (NH-2) of India.

Varanasi is also a district in Uttar Pradesh and there are 8 blocks and 1329 village according to 2011 census report. Native language of Varanasi is the Bhojpuri dialect of Hindi.

Landmarks:
“Varanasi” to the names of two Ganges tributaries Varuna and Assi. There are many Notable landmarks as follows:

  • Jantar Mantar observatory (constructed in 1737).
  • Ramnagar Fort (built in the 18th century).
  • The Dashashwamedh Ghat and The Manikarnika Ghat are primary site for Hindu cremation in the Varanasi city.
  • Kashi Vishwanath Temple, on the Ganges, is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga Shiva temples in Varanasi.
  • Parshvanath Jain temple is the temple of Jain religion.

Economy of Varanasi: There are 40% people are employed in manufacturing industry of Varanasi.
Climate of Varanasi: Temperature ranges between 22 and 46 °C (72 and 115 °F) in the summers and in the winter from December to February temperatures below 5 °C.


kedarnath, Uttarakhand

kedarnath is a nagar panchayat (City Council) in Rudraprayag district in Uttarakhand State of India. kedarnath is famous place for the Kedarnath Temple which is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. kedarnath is one of the 4 Sites ‘Char Dham’ in the Uttarakhand which is located in the Himalayas. It is 3,583 m above the sea level and near to Chorabari Glacier.
Chorabari Glacier is head of the river Mandakini.

In June 2013 the Kedarnath suffered extensive destruction from flash floods caused by torrential rains and this natural disaster also damage the nearest area of kedarnath Temple. Since then the State and Central Government are working on a master plan to re-construct Kedarnath Temple Area with a lot of improvements and international standards.

Kedarnath is also means ‘The Lord of The Field’ which is derives from the Sanskrit words ‘Kedara’ which means ‘Field’. Official language people speak in Kedarnath is Hindi and Garhwali.

Kedarnath is 223 km from the Rishikesh in Uttarakhand. There are Kedarnath peak about 6,940 m (22,769 ft) and Kedar Dome about 6,831 m (22,411 ft) height.


Manohar Parrikar

India’s Minister of Defence ‘Manohar Parrikar’ was an Indian politician and leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
He was born in 13 December 1955 at Mapusa, Goa. He belonged to ‘Goud Saraswat Brahmin (GSB) Community.

Manohar Parrikar was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Goa when he was a member of BJP in 1994. He was former Chief Minister of Goa From 2000-2005, 2012-2014 and 2017-2019. He was Defence Minister of India from 2014 to 2017.

Manohar Parrikar was also a former member of Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh state.

He studied at Loyola High School, Margao, Goa and completed his secondary education in Marathi. He went on to graduate in Metallurgical Engineering in 1978 from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IIT Bombay).

Manohar Parrikar is know for first IIT alumnus to serve as MLA of an Indian state. He joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) at a young age and became a chief instructor in the final years of his schooling.
On 28 September 2018 he was Honorary Doctorate by National Institute of Technology Goa.
Due to Pancreatic Cancer, Manohar Parrikar was died on 17 March 2019 at the age of 63.


Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2019

On 11 April 2019, Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2019 was held in the state. This election was constituting the fifteenth Legislative Assembly in the state and also held alongside the Indian general election, 2019.
In this Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election 2019, Yuvajana Sramika Raithu Congress Party (YSR Congress Party) won 151 seats out of 175 seats and secured almost 86% sets of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won 23 sets in Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election 2019. Bharatiya Janata Party did not won any sets in this election.

According to Election Commission Reports, YSR Congress Party got 1,56,83,592 votes in this Assembly election 2019 while Telugu Desam Party (TDP) got 1,23,01,741 votes. Bharatiya Janata Party got 2,63,849 votes in this assembly election.

The election was held in single phase on 11th April, 2019. Almost 79.88% total voter give there votes in this assembly election 2019 in Andhra Pradesh. On May 23, 2019 the election result was announced.


Air Strike By India (2019 Balakot Airstrike)

Air Strike 2019 By Indian Air force is known as Balakot Airstrike 2019 which was based on a specific reason and this reason made Balakot Airstrike History.

On 14 February 2019, a convoy of vehicles carrying security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-borne suicide bomber at Lethpora in the Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir. This attack resulted the deaths of 46 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel and the attacker. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Pakistan-based Islamist militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed but Pakistani government condemned the attack, and denied any connection to it.

Balakot Airstrike was happened after 12 days of Pulwama attack on CRPF Personnels.
Air Strike by Indian Airforce (IAF) made in early morning hours of February 26, 2019. It was first time since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 that aerial attacks had crossed the Line of Control (LOC). Official Sources of India said that twelve Mirage 2000 jets were involved in the operation. India said that it was a preemptive strike directed against a terrorist training camp, and causing the deaths of a “large number” of terrorists in town of Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.


Cyclone Fani

India Meteorological Department (IMD) which was founded in 1875, found first severe cyclonic storm of the 2019 in North Indian Ocean cyclone season. On 27 April, Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and this cyclone designating it 01B and after six hours India Meteorological Department give this cyclonic storm as Fani.

On 3 May, Cyclone Fani made landfall near Puri, Odisha (India) while winds speed was 155 mph which was 1-minute sustained and 130 mph which was 3-minute sustained. On 4 May, Fani weakened to a deep depression and moved into Bangladesh. On 5 May, Fani’s remnant low dissipated over Bhutan.

State Government of Odisha evacuated over 1.2 million residents from vulnerable coastal areas into cyclone shelters and about 7,000 kitchens were operated to feed evacuees in 9,000 storm shelters.
According to government data at least 72 peoples killed by Cyclone Fani. Total damage in Odisha were estimated at Rupees 12,000 crore which is mostly in property damage and the relief in state.

Cyclone Fani also killed 17 people in 10 districts of the Bangladesh where 160,000 acres of farmland in 35 districts were destroyed. According to Bangladesh the total damage was about US$63.6 Million.
Note: Cyclone Fani was the most intense storm to make landfall in Odisha state since the 1999 Odisha cyclone.


Reserve Bank of India

Reserve Bank of India known as RBI controls the issuance and supply of the Indian rupee in the country. RBI also controlled monetary policy till 2016 in India.

Reserve Bank of India was founded in 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Reserve Bank of India was nationalized on 1 January 1949 which is India’s central banking institution.
Currency of Reserve Bank of India is Indian rupee ₹ (Rupee sign).
Currently (in 2019) Shaktikanta Das is Governor of Reserve Bank of India since 12 December 2018. He is from 1980 batch IAS (Indian Administrative Service) officer background.
Osborne Smith was inaugural officeholder (1935-1937) of RBI, while C. D. Deshmukh was the first Indian governor of RBI (1943-1949).

Headquarter of Reserve Bank of India is at Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Official website of RBI is https://rbi.org.in/
It is also member bank of the Asian Clearing Union. RBI is also known as banker’s bank. It works as a central bank where commercial banks are account holders and can deposit money into RBI. Reserve Bank of India has four regional representations: North in New Delhi, South in Chennai, East in Kolkata and West in Mumbai.

Objective of RBI is to undertake consolidated supervision of the financial sector comprising commercial banks, financial institutions, and non-banking finance companies. It is the sole body who is authorized to issue currency in India. RBI works as an agent of Government of India for distributing and handling of coins while coins and one rupee notes are minted by Government of India.


World’s first malaria vaccine – RTS,S

RTS,S is world’s first licensed malaria vaccine and also the first vaccine licensed for use against a human parasitic disease of any kind. It is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine and a pilot project for vaccination was launched on April 23, 2019 in Malawi (country in southeast Africa). Ghana and Kenya are to join the program in 2019.

This vaccine was conceived of and created in the late 1980s by ‘SmithKline Beecham Biologicals’ which is now ‘GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines’ laboratories in the Belgium.
Note: This vaccine was further developed through a collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and now has been funded in part by the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

On 17 November 2016, WHO announced that the RTS,S vaccine would be rolled out in pilot projects in sub-Saharan Africa countries.


Digital India : Digitalization in India

As “Power To Empower” is the motto of Digital India. This is the campaign was launched by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in 1 July 2015 for making Government’s services are made available to all Indian citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure.
As the present world is becoming more digitalize and fast with high speed Internet, Government of India is taking part with high energy in this new revolution by making so many government services online so as India is a fast developing country then Digitalization save money, time and physical resources which is very good support for any country.

In the Digital India campaign, Government have plans to connect rural areas with high-speed internet networks. It consists three core components:
1) Development of secure and stable digital infrastructure.
2) Delivering government services digitally.
3) Universal digital literacy.

Many services are being providing by Digital India : Bharat net, digital locker, e-education, e-health, e-sign, e-shopping and national scholarship portal.

Under Digital India : Digitalization in India, government have a initiative ‘National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)’ which have responsible to make all government services available to the citizens of India via electronic medium. National e-Governance Plan aimed to front-end government services online like; MyGov.in, UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance), eSign Framwork, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app, e-Hospital application, Digital Attendance of government employees, To Reduce and Block the Black money holes, Digital Locker and e-Sampark.


Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

CBSE is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools. The Board is controlled and managed by Union Government of India.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) was established in 3 November 1962 and headquarter in New Delhi. Anita Karwal (from IAS Background) is the Chairperson of Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) from August 31, 2017.

Under CBSE, almost 20,299 schools in India are affiliated to board and 220 schools of other countries (28) are also affiliated with CBSE.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts the final examinations for Class 10 and Class 12 every year in the month of March and results announced by the end of May.

Note: CBSE have been conducts National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), Central Teacher Eligibility Test (twice a year) UGC’s National Eligibility Test (twice a year) and the entrance test for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas in India.


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